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Cloud computing and Grid computing e-Infrastructures link local cluster computer resources together. Federated Clouds are the most recent developments.

On a European scale organisations active include:

EGI: a general federated cloud (& Grid) open to every organisation (through national organisations)

Helix Nebula a special Cloud set up by a few big laboratories.

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HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 – 2015 4. European research infrastructures (including e-Infrastructures) Revised

Research infrastructures are facilities, resources and services that are used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation in their fields. Where relevant, they may be used beyond research, e.g. for education or public services. They include: major scientific equipment (or sets of instruments); knowledge-based resources such as collections, archives or scientific data; e-infrastructures, such as data and computing systems and communication networks; and any other infrastructure of a unique nature essential to achieve excellence in research and innovation. Such infrastructures may be 'single-sited', ‘virtual’ or 'distributed'.
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