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Cloud computing and Grid computing e-Infrastructures link local cluster computer resources together. Federated Clouds are the most recent developments.

On a European scale organisations active include:

EGI: a general federated cloud (& Grid) open to every organisation (through national organisations)

Helix Nebula a special Cloud set up by a few big laboratories.

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US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap

US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume I: High-Priority Requirements to Further USG Agency Cloud Computing Adoption; and Volume II: Useful Information for Cloud Adopters The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), consistent with its mission, has a technology leadership role in support of United States Government (USG) secure and effective adoption of the Cloud Computing model to reduce costs and improve services. This role is described in the 2011 Federal Cloud Computing Strategy as ,... a central one in defining and advancing standards, and collaborating with USG Agency CIOs, private sector experts, and international bodies to identify and reach consensus on cloud computing technology & standardization priorities.Š This NIST Cloud Computing program and initiative to develop a USG Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap is one of several complementary and parallel USG initiatives defined in the broader Federal Cloud Computing Strategy referenced above. The Federal Cloud Computing Strategy characterizes cloud computing as a ,profound economic and technical shift (with) great potential to reduce the cost of federal Information Technology (IT) systems while , improving IT capabilities and stimulating innovation in IT solutions.Š In the technology vision of Federal Cloud Computing Strategy success, USG agencies will be able to easily locate desired IT services in a mature and competitive marketplace, rapidly procure access to these services, and use them to deliver innovative mission solutions. Cloud services will be secure, interoperable, and reliable. Agencies will be able to switch between providers easily and with minimal cost, and receive equal or superior service.
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